Gin is a clear spirit that is made by distilling fermented grain and a number of other botanicals, one of which by law must be juniper. Gin is essentially pure ethanol, or flavourless vodka, that is flavoured through re-distillation with a range of natural ingredients. Gin originated as a medicinal liquor made by monks in Italy. This was followed by other monks and alchemists across Europe, particularly Southern France, Flanders and the Netherlands, to provide aqua vita from distillates of grapes and grains. It then became an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin emerged in England after the introduction of the jenever, a Dutch and Belgian liquor that was originally a medicine. Although this development had been taking place since early 17th century, gin became widespread after the William of Orange-led 1688 Glorious Revolution and subsequent import restrictions on French brandy.